BACnet

BACnet(Building Automation and Control networks)通信协议的发展源起于1987年6年在田纳西州纳什维尔举行的美国冷冻空调协会标准委员会(Standard Project Committee)。委员会中大家同意将通信协议的设计分区为各个不同的主题,利用工作小组的方式进行,各工作小组专注在特定的领域,并提供信息给标准委员会,一开始分为三个工作小组,分别是数据型态及属性(Data Type and Attribute)、原始数据格式(Primitive Data Format)及应用服务(Application Services)等三个。历经约9年研拟与3次的公开意见讨论程序完成订稿。

BACnet在1995年时成为美国国家标准协会及美国冷冻空调协会的建筑自动化控制网络的数据传输协议(ASHRAE/ANSI SSPC 135)标准,在2003年时成为ISO标准 ISO 16484-5。BACnet兼容性测试的方式在2003年成为BSR/ASHRAE 标准Standard 135.1。目前BACnet协议是由ASHRAE的标准委员会(SSPC)135维护。

在BACnet通信协议问世后,美国Alerton公司就在1996年推出了一系列支持BACnet的HVAC产品,从小型的变风量控制器到操作员的工作站。后来也有许多厂商开发支持BACnet的产品。到2010年1月为止,已有超过480家公司申请了支持BACnet需要的设备商识别码(Vender ID)。

协议介绍

BACnet通信协议中定义了几种不同的数据链结层/物理层,包括:
ARCNET(ARCNET)
以太网
BACnet/IP
RS-232上的点对点通信(Point-to-point_(telecommunications))
RS-485上的主站-从站/令牌传递(Master-Slave/Token-Passing,简称MS/TP)通信
LonTalk(LonTalk)
BACnet通信协议中定义了许多服务(service),可供各设备之间的通信,服务可以分为五类:有关设备对象管理的服务包括Who-Is、I-Am、Who-Has及I-Have等服务,有关对象访问的服务包括读取属性、写入属性等服务,有关报警与事件的服务包括确认报警、属性改变(change of state)报告等,此外也有有关文件读写及虚拟终端的服务。
BACnet通信协议也定义了许多种类的对象。金每个对象中都有许多属性,可以通过服务来访问对象中的属性。BACnet通信中的设备就是由许多对象组成,其中包括一个设备对象,是每个设备都必需的,其中记录设备相关的数据,其他对象包括模拟输入、模拟输出、模拟值、数字输入、数字输出及数字值等有关数据的对象。
为了提供不同厂商BACnet设备之间的互操作性,BACnet协议也定义了BACnet互操作基本块(BACnet Interoperability Building Block,简称BIBB),BACnet互操作基本块是由一个或多个服务所组成,说明在特定需求下,服务器(server)端及客户(client)端需要支持的服务及程序。BACnet互操作基本块可分为以下的五种:
1、数据分享
2、警告及事件管理
3、调度
4、趋势
5、设备及网络管理
每个BACnet设备都会有一份名为“协议实现一致性声明”(Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement,PICS)的文件,其中需说明设备所支持的BACnet互操作基本块、对象种类及定义、使用文字集及通信时需要的数据。

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